CAUSES, SYMPTOMS AND PREVENTION
The breast consists of billions of cells. These cells multiply and replace old ones in a regular pattern. In cancer, the cells multiply excessively and uncontrollably. Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that usually start in the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supplies milk. It can spread to other parts of the body. Majority of breast cancer cases occur in females. Breast cancer rates are much higher in developed nations, with possibly life-expectancy being one of the key factors.
Forms of Breast Cancer
- Invasive Breast Cancer – the cancer cells break out from inside the lobules or ducts and invade nearby tissue. The cancer cells can metastasis (travel) through the bloodstream or the lymphatic system to other parts of the body; either early on in the disease, or later. It’s the most common type of breast cancer in women.
- Non-invasive Breast Cancer – this is when the cancer is still inside its place of origin and has not spread out. Lobular carcinoma in situ is when the cancer is still inside the lobules, while ductal carcinoma in situ is when they are still inside the milk ducts. “In situ” means “in its original place”. Sometimes, this type of breast cancer is called “pre-cancerous”.
Symptoms of Breast Cancer
A lump in a breast
A pain in the armpits or breast that does not seem to be related to the woman’s menstrual pains
Pitting or redness of the skin of the breast; like the skin of an orange
A rash around (or on) one of the nipples
A swelling (lump) in one of the armpits
An area of thickened tissue in a breast
One of the nipples has a discharge; sometimes it may contain blood
The nipple changes in appearance; it may become sunken or inverted
The size or the shape of the breast changes
The nipple-skin or breast-skin may have started to peel, scale or flake.
Causes of Breast Cancer
The actual cause of breast cancer had not been known. However, some risk factors can impact on a woman’s likelihood of developing breast cancer. These are:
Uses of breast and butt enlargement drugs
Oral medications that contains oestrogen (oestrogen can cause breast enlargement)
Ages above 50years (post menopausal aging)
Women with Dense breast tissue
Post-menopausal obesity and overweight.
Alcohol consumption in women
Exposure to Radiations as X-rays, CT scan etc
Hormone Replacement Therapy (HTR) using oestrogen or combined with other hormone.
Previous history of breast cancer e.g atypical ductal hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ.
Early menstrual and late menopausal life
Certain jobs/exposure to carcinogen and endocrine disruptors
Cosmetic breast implants may undermine breast cancer survival
Treatments for breast cancer
Radiation therapy (radiotherapy)
Radiation therapy types include
Chemotherapy (cytotoxic drugs)
Hormone therapy (hormone blocking therapy)
Biological treatment (targeted drugs)
How to Preventing Breast Cancer
Avoid alcohol consumption
Avoid self medication
Avoid breast and butt enlargement medication
Postmenopausal hormone therapy